Source code for astroquery.vizier.core

# Licensed under a 3-clause BSD style license - see LICENSE.rst

import os
import warnings
import json
import copy
import re

from io import BytesIO

import astropy.units as u
import astropy.coordinates as coord
import astropy.table as tbl
import as aud
from collections import OrderedDict
import as votable
from import ascii, fits

from ..query import BaseQuery
from ..utils import commons
from ..utils import async_to_sync
from ..utils import schema
from . import conf
from ..exceptions import TableParseError

__all__ = ['Vizier', 'VizierClass']

__doctest_skip__ = ['VizierClass.*']

[docs] @async_to_sync class VizierClass(BaseQuery): _str_schema = schema.Schema(str) _schema_columns = schema.Schema([_str_schema], error="columns must be a list of strings") _schema_ucd = schema.Schema(_str_schema, error="ucd must be string") _schema_column_filters = schema.Schema( {schema.Optional(_str_schema): _str_schema}, error=("column_filters must be a dictionary where both keys " "and values are strings")) _schema_catalog = schema.Schema( schema.Or([_str_schema], _str_schema, None), error="catalog must be a list of strings or a single string") def __init__(self, *, columns=["*"], column_filters={}, catalog=None, keywords=None, ucd="", timeout=conf.timeout, vizier_server=conf.server, row_limit=conf.row_limit): """ Parameters ---------- columns : list List of strings column_filters : dict catalog : str or None keywords : str or None ucd : string "Unified Content Description" column descriptions. Specifying these will select only catalogs that have columns matching the column descriptions defined on the Vizier web pages. See and vizier_server : string Name of the VizieR mirror to use. (This parameter's default is set from a configuration object.) timeout : number timeout for connecting to server (This parameter's default is set from a configuration object.) row_limit : int Maximum number of rows that will be fetched from the result (set to -1 for unlimited). (This parameter's default is set from a configuration object.) """ super().__init__() self.columns = columns self.column_filters = column_filters self.catalog = catalog self._keywords = None self.ucd = ucd if keywords: self.keywords = keywords self.TIMEOUT = timeout self.VIZIER_SERVER = vizier_server self.ROW_LIMIT = row_limit @property def columns(self): """ Columns to include. The special keyword 'all' will return ALL columns from ALL retrieved tables. """ # columns need to be immutable but still need to be a list return list(tuple(self._columns)) @columns.setter def columns(self, values): self._columns = VizierClass._schema_columns.validate(values) @property def column_filters(self): """ Filters to run on the individual columns. See the Vizier website for details. """ return self._column_filters @column_filters.setter def column_filters(self, values): self._column_filters = ( VizierClass._schema_column_filters.validate(values)) @property def catalog(self): """ The default catalog to search. If left empty, will search all catalogs. """ return self._catalog @catalog.setter def catalog(self, values): self._catalog = VizierClass._schema_catalog.validate(values) @property def ucd(self): """ UCD criteria: see Examples -------- >>> Vizier.ucd = '(spect.dopplerVeloc*|phys.veloc*)' """ return self._ucd @ucd.setter def ucd(self, values): self._ucd = VizierClass._schema_ucd.validate(values) def _server_to_url(self, return_type='votable'): """ Not generally meant to be modified, but there are different valid return types supported by Vizier, listed here: HTML: VizieR votable: votable tab-separated-values: asu-tsv FITS ascii table: asu-fits FITS binary table: asu-binfits plain text: asu-txt """ # Only votable is supported now, but in case we try to support # something in the future we should disallow invalid ones. assert return_type in ('votable', 'asu-tsv', 'asu-fits', 'asu-binfits', 'asu-txt') if return_type in ('asu-txt',): # I had a look at the format of these "tables" and... they just # aren't. They're quasi-fixed-width without schema. I think they # follow the general philosophy of "consistency is overrated" # The CDS reader chokes on it. raise TypeError("asu-txt is not and cannot be supported: the " "returned tables are not and cannot be made " "parseable.") return "https://" + self.VIZIER_SERVER + "/viz-bin/" + return_type @property def keywords(self): """The set of keywords to filter the Vizier search""" return self._keywords @keywords.setter def keywords(self, value): self._keywords = VizierKeyword(value) @keywords.deleter def keywords(self): self._keywords = None
[docs] def find_catalogs(self, keywords, *, include_obsolete=False, verbose=False, max_catalogs=None, return_type='votable'): """ Search Vizier for catalogs based on a set of keywords, e.g. author name Parameters ---------- keywords : list or string List of keywords, or space-separated set of keywords. From `Vizier <>`_: "names or words of title of catalog. The words are and'ed, i.e. only the catalogues characterized by all the words are selected." include_obsolete : bool, optional If set to True, catalogs marked obsolete will also be returned. max_catalogs : int or None The maximum number of catalogs to return. If ``None``, all catalogs will be returned. Returns ------- resource_dict : dict Dictionary of the "Resource" name and the VOTable resource object. "Resources" are generally publications; one publication may contain many tables. Examples -------- >>> from astroquery.vizier import Vizier >>> catalog_list = Vizier.find_catalogs('Kang W51') >>> print(catalog_list) {u'J/ApJ/706/83': < at 0x108d4d490>, u'J/ApJS/191/232': < at 0x108d50490>} >>> print({k:v.description for k,v in catalog_list.items()}) {u'J/ApJ/706/83': u'Embedded YSO candidates in W51 (Kang+, 2009)', u'J/ApJS/191/232': u'CO survey of W51 molecular cloud (Bieging+, 2010)'} """ if isinstance(keywords, list): keywords = " ".join(keywords) data_payload = {'-words': keywords, '-meta.all': 1} data_payload['-ucd'] = self.ucd if max_catalogs is not None: data_payload['-meta.max'] = max_catalogs response = self._request( method='POST', url=self._server_to_url(return_type=return_type), data=data_payload, timeout=self.TIMEOUT) if 'STOP, Max. number of RESOURCE reached' in response.text: raise ValueError("Maximum number of catalogs exceeded. Try " "setting max_catalogs to a large number and" " try again") result = self._parse_result(response, verbose=verbose, get_catalog_names=True) # Filter out the obsolete catalogs, unless requested if include_obsolete is False: for key in list(result): for info in result[key].infos: if ( == 'status') and (info.value == 'obsolete'): del result[key] return result
[docs] def get_catalogs_async(self, catalog, *, verbose=False, return_type='votable', get_query_payload=False): """ Query the Vizier service for a specific catalog Parameters ---------- catalog : str, Resource, or list, optional The catalog(s) that will be retrieved Returns ------- response : `~requests.Response` Returned if asynchronous method used """ if not isinstance(catalog, (str, votable.tree.Resource)): catalog = list(catalog) data_payload = self._args_to_payload(catalog=catalog) if get_query_payload: return data_payload response = self._request( method='POST', url=self._server_to_url(return_type=return_type), data=data_payload, timeout=self.TIMEOUT) return response
[docs] def query_object_async(self, object_name, *, catalog=None, radius=None, coordinate_frame=None, get_query_payload=False, return_type='votable', cache=True): """ Serves the same purpose as `query_object` but only returns the HTTP response rather than the parsed result. Parameters ---------- object_name : str The name of the identifier. catalog : str or list, optional The catalog(s) which must be searched for this identifier. If not specified, all matching catalogs will be searched. radius : `~astropy.units.Quantity` or None A degree-equivalent radius (optional). coordinate_system : str or None If the object name is given as a coordinate, you *should* use `~astroquery.vizier.VizierClass.query_region`, but you can specify a coordinate frame here instead (today, J2000, B1975, B1950, B1900, B1875, B1855, Galactic, Supergal., Ecl.J2000, ) Returns ------- response : `~requests.Response` The response of the HTTP request. """ catalog = VizierClass._schema_catalog.validate(catalog) if radius is None: center = {'-c': object_name} else: radius_arcmin = cframe = (coordinate_frame if coordinate_frame in ["today", "J2000", "B1975", "B1950", "B1900", "B1875", "B1855", "Galactic", "Supergal.", "Ecl.J2000"] else 'J2000') center = {'-c': object_name, '-c.u': 'arcmin', '-c.geom': 'r', '-c.r': radius_arcmin, '-c.eq': cframe} data_payload = self._args_to_payload( center=center, catalog=catalog) if get_query_payload: return data_payload response = self._request( method='POST', url=self._server_to_url(return_type=return_type), data=data_payload, timeout=self.TIMEOUT, cache=cache) return response
[docs] def query_region_async(self, coordinates, *, radius=None, inner_radius=None, width=None, height=None, catalog=None, get_query_payload=False, cache=True, return_type='votable', column_filters={}, frame='fk5'): """ Serves the same purpose as `query_region` but only returns the HTTP response rather than the parsed result. At least one of ``radius`` or ``width`` must be specified. Parameters ---------- coordinates : str, `astropy.coordinates` object, or `~astropy.table.Table` The target around which to search. It may be specified as a string in which case it is resolved using online services or as the appropriate `astropy.coordinates` object. ICRS coordinates may also be entered as a string. If a table is used, each of its rows will be queried, as long as it contains two columns named ``_RAJ2000`` and ``_DEJ2000`` with proper angular units. radius : convertible to `~astropy.coordinates.Angle` The radius of the circular region to query. inner_radius : convertible to `~astropy.coordinates.Angle` When set in addition to ``radius``, the queried region becomes annular, with outer radius ``radius`` and inner radius ``inner_radius``. width : convertible to `~astropy.coordinates.Angle` The width of the square region to query. height : convertible to `~astropy.coordinates.Angle` When set in addition to ``width``, the queried region becomes rectangular, with the specified ``width`` and ``height``. catalog : str or list, optional The catalog(s) which must be searched for this identifier. If not specified, all matching catalogs will be searched. column_filters: dict, optional Constraints on columns of the result. The dictionary contains the column name as keys, and the constraints as values. frame : str, optional The frame to use for the request. It should be 'fk5', 'icrs', or 'galactic'. This choice influences the the orientation of box requests. Returns ------- response : `requests.Response` The response of the HTTP request. """ if frame not in ('galactic', 'fk5', 'icrs'): raise ValueError("Only the 'galactic', 'icrs', and 'fk5' frames are supported by VizieR") catalog = VizierClass._schema_catalog.validate(catalog) center = {} columns = [] # Process coordinates if isinstance(coordinates, (commons.CoordClasses, str)): target = commons.parse_coordinates(coordinates).transform_to(frame) if not target.isscalar: center["-c"] = [] for pos in target: if frame == 'galactic': glon_deg = pos.l.to_string(unit="deg", decimal=True, precision=8) glat_deg = pos.b.to_string(unit="deg", decimal=True, precision=8, alwayssign=True) center["-c"] += ["G{}{}".format(glon_deg, glat_deg)] else: ra_deg = pos.ra.to_string(unit="deg", decimal=True, precision=8) dec_deg = pos.dec.to_string(unit="deg", decimal=True, precision=8, alwayssign=True) center["-c"] += ["{}{}".format(ra_deg, dec_deg)] columns += ["_q"] # Always request reference to input table else: if frame == 'galactic': glon = target.l.to_string(unit='deg', decimal=True, precision=8) glat = target.b.to_string(unit="deg", decimal=True, precision=8, alwayssign=True) center["-c"] = "G{glon}{glat}".format(glon=glon, glat=glat) else: ra = target.ra.to_string(unit='deg', decimal=True, precision=8) dec = target.dec.to_string(unit="deg", decimal=True, precision=8, alwayssign=True) center["-c"] = "{ra}{dec}".format(ra=ra, dec=dec) elif isinstance(coordinates, tbl.Table): if (("_RAJ2000" in coordinates.keys()) and ("_DEJ2000" in coordinates.keys())): center["-c"] = [] sky_coord = coord.SkyCoord(coordinates["_RAJ2000"], coordinates["_DEJ2000"], unit=(coordinates["_RAJ2000"].unit, coordinates["_DEJ2000"].unit)) for (ra, dec) in zip(sky_coord.ra, sky_coord.dec): ra_deg = ra.to_string(unit="deg", decimal=True, precision=8) dec_deg = dec.to_string(unit="deg", decimal=True, precision=8, alwayssign=True) center["-c"] += ["{}{}".format(ra_deg, dec_deg)] columns += ["_q"] # Always request reference to input table else: raise ValueError("Table must contain '_RAJ2000' and " "'_DEJ2000' columns!") else: raise TypeError("Coordinates must be one of: string, astropy " "coordinates, or table containing coordinates!") if radius is not None: if inner_radius is None: _, unit_str, o_radius = _parse_angle(radius) center["-c.r" + unit_str] = str(o_radius) else: unit, unit_str, i_radius = _parse_angle(inner_radius) o_radius = coord.Angle(radius).to_value(unit) center["-c.r" + unit_str] = f"{i_radius},{o_radius}" elif width is not None: unit, unit_str, w_box = _parse_angle(width) h_box = w_box if height is None else coord.Angle(height).to_value(unit) center["-c.b" + unit_str] = f"{w_box}x{h_box}" else: raise Exception( "At least one of radius, width/height must be specified") # Prepare payload data_payload = self._args_to_payload(center=center, columns=columns, catalog=catalog, column_filters=column_filters) if get_query_payload: return data_payload response = self._request( method='POST', url=self._server_to_url(return_type=return_type), data=data_payload, timeout=self.TIMEOUT, cache=cache) return response
[docs] def query_constraints_async(self, *, catalog=None, return_type='votable', cache=True, get_query_payload=False, **kwargs): """ Send a query to Vizier in which you specify constraints with keyword/value pairs. See `the vizier constraints page <>`_ for details. Parameters ---------- catalog : str or list, optional The catalog(s) which must be searched for this identifier. If not specified, all matching catalogs will be searched. kwargs : dict Any key/value pairs besides "catalog" will be parsed as additional column filters. Returns ------- response : `requests.Response` The response of the HTTP request. Examples -------- >>> from astroquery.vizier import Vizier >>> # note that glon/glat constraints here *must* be floats >>> result = Vizier.query_constraints(catalog='J/ApJ/723/492/table1', ... GLON='>49.0 & <51.0', GLAT='<0') >>> result[result.keys()[0]].pprint() GRSMC GLON GLAT VLSR ... RD09 _RA.icrs _DE.icrs ------------- ------ ------ ------ ... ---- -------- -------- G049.49-00.41 49.49 -0.41 56.90 ... RD09 290.95 14.50 G049.39-00.26 49.39 -0.26 50.94 ... RD09 290.77 14.48 G049.44-00.06 49.44 -0.06 62.00 ... RD09 290.61 14.62 G049.04-00.31 49.04 -0.31 66.25 ... RD09 290.64 14.15 G049.74-00.56 49.74 -0.56 67.95 ... RD09 291.21 14.65 G050.39-00.41 50.39 -0.41 41.17 ... RD09 291.39 15.29 G050.24-00.61 50.24 -0.61 41.17 ... RD09 291.50 15.06 G050.94-00.61 50.94 -0.61 40.32 ... RD09 291.85 15.68 G049.99-00.16 49.99 -0.16 46.27 ... RD09 290.97 15.06 G049.44-00.06 49.44 -0.06 46.27 ... RD09 290.61 14.62 G049.54-00.01 49.54 -0.01 56.05 ... RD09 290.61 14.73 G049.74-00.01 49.74 -0.01 48.39 ... RD09 290.71 14.91 G049.54-00.91 49.54 -0.91 43.29 ... RD09 291.43 14.31 G049.04-00.46 49.04 -0.46 58.60 ... RD09 290.78 14.08 G049.09-00.06 49.09 -0.06 46.69 ... RD09 290.44 14.31 G050.84-00.11 50.84 -0.11 50.52 ... RD09 291.34 15.83 G050.89-00.11 50.89 -0.11 59.45 ... RD09 291.37 15.87 G050.44-00.41 50.44 -0.41 64.12 ... RD09 291.42 15.34 G050.84-00.76 50.84 -0.76 61.15 ... RD09 291.94 15.52 G050.29-00.46 50.29 -0.46 14.81 ... RD09 291.39 15.18 """ catalog = VizierClass._schema_catalog.validate(catalog) data_payload = self._args_to_payload( catalog=catalog, column_filters=kwargs, center={'-c.rd': 180}) if get_query_payload: return data_payload response = self._request( method='POST', url=self._server_to_url(return_type=return_type), data=data_payload, timeout=self.TIMEOUT, cache=cache) return response
def _args_to_payload(self, *args, **kwargs): """ accepts the arguments for different query functions and builds a script suitable for the Vizier votable CGI. """ body = OrderedDict() center = kwargs.get('center') # process: catalog catalog = kwargs.get('catalog') or self.catalog if catalog is not None: if isinstance(catalog, str): body['-source'] = catalog elif isinstance(catalog, list): catalog = [ if hasattr(item, 'name') else item for item in catalog] body['-source'] = ",".join(catalog) elif hasattr(catalog, 'name'): # this is probably a votable Resource, but no harm in duck-typing on `name` body['-source'] = else: raise TypeError("Catalog must be specified as list, string, or Resource") # process: columns columns = kwargs.get('columns', copy.copy(self.columns)) if columns is not None: columns = self.columns + columns # filter columns to _unique_ columns, preserving order in python >3.6 # note that "set" does not preserve order, but dict.keys does columns = list(dict.fromkeys(columns, ).keys()) # special keywords need to be treated separately # keyword names that can mean 'all' alls = ['all', '**'] if any(x in columns for x in alls): columns_all = True for x in alls: if x in columns: columns.remove(x) body['-out.all'] = None else: columns_all = False # process: columns - identify sorting requests columns_out = [] sorts_out = [] for column in columns: if column[0] == '+': columns_out += [column[1:]] sorts_out += [column[1:]] elif column[0] == '-': columns_out += [column[1:]] sorts_out += [column] else: columns_out += [column] # calculated keyword names that start with an underscore columns_calc = [] for column in columns_out: if column[0] == '_': columns_calc.append(column) for column in columns_calc: columns_out.remove(column) if columns_out and not columns_all: body['-out'] = ','.join(columns_out) if columns_calc: body['-out.add'] = ','.join(columns_calc) if len(sorts_out) > 0: body['-sort'] = ','.join(sorts_out) # process: maximum rows returned row_limit = kwargs.get('row_limit') or self.ROW_LIMIT if row_limit < 0: body["-out.max"] = 'unlimited' else: body["-out.max"] = row_limit # process: column filters column_filters = self.column_filters.copy() column_filters.update(kwargs.get('column_filters', {})) for (key, value) in column_filters.items(): body[key] = value # process: center if center is not None: for (key, value) in center.items(): body[key] = value # add column metadata: name, unit, UCD1+, and description body["-out.meta"] = "huUD" # merge tables when a list is queried against a single catalog body["-out.form"] = "mini" # computed position should always be in decimal degrees body["-oc.form"] = "d" ucd = kwargs.get('ucd', "") + self.ucd if ucd: body['-ucd'] = ucd # create final script starting with keywords script = [] if (not isinstance(self.keywords, property) and self.keywords is not None): script += [str(self.keywords)] # add all items that are not lists for key, val in body.items(): if type(val) is not list: if val: script += ["{key}={val}".format(key=key, val=val)] else: script += [key] # add list at the end for key, val in body.items(): if type(val) is list: script += ["{key}=<<====AstroqueryList".format(key=key)] script += val script += ["====AstroqueryList"] # merge result return "\n".join(script) def _parse_result(self, response, *, get_catalog_names=False, verbose=False, invalid='warn'): """ Parses the HTTP response to create a `~astropy.table.Table`. Returns the raw result as a string in case of parse errors. Parameters ---------- response : `requests.Response` The response of the HTTP POST request get_catalog_names : bool (only for VOTABLE queries) If specified, return only the table names (useful for table discovery). invalid : 'warn', 'mask' or 'exception' (only for VOTABLE queries) The behavior if a VOTABLE cannot be parsed. The default is 'warn', which will try to parse the table, but if an exception is raised during parsing, the exception will be issued as a warning instead and a masked table will be returned. A value of 'exception' will not catch the exception, while a value of 'mask' will simply always mask invalid values. Returns ------- table_list : `astroquery.utils.TableList` or str If there are errors in the parsing, then returns the raw results as a string. """ if response.content[:5] == b'<?xml': try: return _parse_vizier_votable( response.content, verbose=verbose, invalid=invalid, get_catalog_names=get_catalog_names) except Exception as ex: self.response = response self.table_parse_error = ex raise TableParseError("Failed to parse VIZIER result! The " "raw response can be found in " "self.response, and the error in " "self.table_parse_error. The attempted " "parsed result is in " "self.parsed_result.\n Exception: " + str(self.table_parse_error)) elif response.content[:5] == b'#\n# ': return _parse_vizier_tsvfile(response.content, verbose=verbose) elif response.content[:6] == b'SIMPLE': return, ignore_missing_end=True) @property def valid_keywords(self): if not hasattr(self, '_valid_keyword_dict'): file_name = aud.get_pkg_data_filename( os.path.join("data", "inverse_dict.json")) with open(file_name, 'r') as f: kwd = json.load(f) self._valid_keyword_types = sorted(kwd.values()) self._valid_keyword_dict = OrderedDict([(k, kwd[k]) for k in sorted(kwd)]) return self._valid_keyword_dict
def _parse_vizier_tsvfile(data, *, verbose=False): """ Parse a Vizier-generated list of tsv data tables into a list of astropy Tables. Parameters ---------- data : response content bytes Bytes containing the vizier-formatted list of tables """ # split_indices = [m.start() for m in re.finditer(b'\n\n#', data)] # we want to slice out chunks of the file each time split_limits = zip(split_indices[:-1], split_indices[1:]) tables = [[a:b]), format='fast_tab', delimiter='\t', header_start=0, comment="#") for a, b in split_limits] return tables def _parse_vizier_votable(data, *, verbose=False, invalid='warn', get_catalog_names=False): """ Given a votable as string, parse it into dict or tables """ if not verbose: commons.suppress_vo_warnings() tf = BytesIO(data) if invalid == 'mask': vo_tree = votable.parse(tf, verify='warn', invalid='mask') elif invalid == 'warn': try: vo_tree = votable.parse(tf, verify='warn', invalid='exception') except Exception as ex: warnings.warn("VOTABLE parsing raised exception: {0}".format(ex)) vo_tree = votable.parse(tf, verify='warn', invalid='mask') elif invalid == 'exception': vo_tree = votable.parse(tf, verify='warn', invalid='exception') else: raise ValueError("Invalid keyword for 'invalid'. " "Must be exception, mask, or warn") if get_catalog_names: return OrderedDict([(, R) for R in vo_tree.resources]) else: table_dict = OrderedDict() for t in vo_tree.iter_tables(): if len(t.array) > 0: if t.ref is not None: name = vo_tree.get_table_by_id(t.ref).name else: name = if name not in table_dict.keys(): table_dict[name] = [] table_dict[name] += [t.to_table()] for name in table_dict.keys(): if len(table_dict[name]) > 1: table_dict[name] = tbl.vstack(table_dict[name]) else: table_dict[name] = table_dict[name][0] return commons.TableList(table_dict) def _parse_angle(angle): """ Returns the Vizier-formatted units and values for box/radius dimensions in case of region queries. Parameters ---------- angle : convertible to `astropy.coordinates.Angle` Returns ------- (unit, unit_str, value) : tuple """ angle = coord.Angle(angle) if angle.unit is u.arcsec: return u.arcsec, "s", angle.value elif angle.unit is u.arcmin: return u.arcmin, "m", angle.value else: return u.deg, "d", angle.to_value(u.deg) class VizierKeyword(list): """Helper class for setting keywords for Vizier queries""" def __init__(self, keywords): file_name = aud.get_pkg_data_filename( os.path.join("data", "inverse_dict.json")) with open(file_name, 'r') as f: kwd = json.load(f) self.keyword_types = sorted(kwd.values()) self.keyword_dict = OrderedDict([(k, kwd[k]) for k in sorted(kwd)]) self._keywords = None self.keywords = keywords @property def keywords(self): """ List or string for keyword(s) that must be set for the Vizier object. """ return self._keywords @keywords.setter def keywords(self, values): if isinstance(values, str): values = list(values) keys = [key.lower() for key in self.keyword_dict] values = [val.lower() for val in values] # warn about unknown keywords for val in set(values) - set(keys): warnings.warn("{val} : No such keyword".format(val=val)) valid_keys = [ key for key in self.keyword_dict.keys() if key.lower() in list(map(str.lower, values))] # create a dict for each type of keyword set_keywords = OrderedDict() for key in self.keyword_dict: if key in valid_keys: if self.keyword_dict[key] in set_keywords: set_keywords[self.keyword_dict[key]].append(key) else: set_keywords[self.keyword_dict[key]] = [key] self._keywords = OrderedDict( [(k, sorted(set_keywords[k])) for k in set_keywords]) @keywords.deleter def keywords(self): del self._keywords def __repr__(self): return "\n".join([x for key in self.keywords for x in self.get_keyword_str(key)]) def get_keyword_str(self, key): """ Helper function that returns the keywords, grouped into appropriate categories and suitable for the Vizier votable CGI. Comma-separated is not valid!!! """ keyword_name = "-kw." + key return [keyword_name + "=" + s for s in self.keywords[key]] Vizier = VizierClass()