Source code for astroquery.jplhorizons.core

# Licensed under a 3-clause BSD style license - see LICENSE.rst


# 1. standard library imports
from numpy import nan
from numpy import isnan
from numpy import ndarray
from collections import OrderedDict
import warnings

# 2. third party imports
from requests.exceptions import HTTPError
from astropy.table import Table, Column
from astropy.io import ascii
from astropy.time import Time
from astropy.utils.exceptions import AstropyDeprecationWarning
from astropy.utils.decorators import deprecated_renamed_argument, deprecated_attribute

# 3. local imports - use relative imports
# commonly required local imports shown below as example
# all Query classes should inherit from BaseQuery.
from ..query import BaseQuery
# async_to_sync generates the relevant query tools from _async methods
from ..utils import async_to_sync
# import configurable items declared in __init__.py
from . import conf

__all__ = ['Horizons', 'HorizonsClass']


[docs]@async_to_sync class HorizonsClass(BaseQuery): """ Query the `JPL Horizons <https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons/>`_ service. """ TIMEOUT = conf.timeout raw_response = deprecated_attribute( 'raw_response', '0.4.7', alternative=("an ``_async`` method (e.g., ``ephemerides_async``) to " "return a response object, and access the content with " "``response.text``")) def __init__(self, id=None, location=None, epochs=None, id_type=None): """ Initialize JPL query. Parameters ---------- id : str, required Name, number, or designation of the object to be queried. location : str or dict, optional Observer's location for ephemerides queries or center body name for orbital element or vector queries. Uses the same codes as JPL Horizons. If no location is provided, Earth's center is used for ephemerides queries and the Sun's center for elements and vectors queries. Arbitrary topocentric coordinates for ephemerides queries can be provided in the format of a dictionary. The dictionary has to be of the form {``'lon'``: longitude in deg (East positive, West negative), ``'lat'``: latitude in deg (North positive, South negative), ``'elevation'``: elevation in km above the reference ellipsoid, [``'body'``: Horizons body ID of the central body; optional; if this value is not provided it is assumed that this location is on Earth]}. epochs : scalar, list-like, or dictionary, optional Either a list of epochs in JD or MJD format or a dictionary defining a range of times and dates; the range dictionary has to be of the form {``'start'``: 'YYYY-MM-DD [HH:MM:SS]', ``'stop'``: 'YYYY-MM-DD [HH:MM:SS]', ``'step'``: 'n[y|d|m|s]'}. Epoch timescales depend on the type of query performed: UTC for ephemerides queries, TDB for element and vector queries. If no epochs are provided, the current time is used. id_type : str, optional Controls Horizons's object selection for ``id`` [HORIZONSDOC_SELECTION]_ . Options: ``'designation'`` (small body designation), ``'name'`` (asteroid or comet name), ``'asteroid_name'``, ``'comet_name'``, ``'smallbody'`` (asteroid and comet search), or ``None`` (first search search planets, natural satellites, spacecraft, and special cases, and if no matches, then search small bodies). References ---------- .. [HORIZONSDOC_SELECTION] https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons/manual.html#select (retrieved 2021 Sep 23). Examples -------- >>> from astroquery.jplhorizons import Horizons >>> eros = Horizons(id='433', location='568', ... epochs={'start': '2017-01-01', ... 'stop': '2017-02-01', ... 'step': '1d'}) >>> print(eros) JPLHorizons instance "433"; location=568, epochs={'start': '2017-01-01', 'stop': '2017-02-01', 'step': '1d'}, id_type=None """ super().__init__() self.id = id self.location = location # check for epochs to be dict or list-like; else: make it a list if epochs is not None: if isinstance(epochs, (list, tuple, ndarray)): pass elif isinstance(epochs, dict): if not ('start' in epochs and 'stop' in epochs and 'step' in epochs): raise ValueError('time range ({:s}) requires start, stop, ' 'and step'.format(str(epochs))) else: # turn scalars into list epochs = [epochs] self.epochs = epochs # check for id_type if id_type in ['majorbody', 'id']: warnings.warn("``id_type``s 'majorbody' and 'id' are deprecated " "and replaced with ``None``, which has the same " "functionality.", AstropyDeprecationWarning) id_type = None if id_type not in [None, 'smallbody', 'designation', 'name', 'asteroid_name', 'comet_name']: raise ValueError('id_type ({:s}) not allowed'.format(id_type)) self.id_type = id_type # return raw response? self.return_raw = False self.query_type = None # ['ephemerides', 'elements', 'vectors'] self.uri = None # will contain query URL self._raw_response = None # will contain raw response from server def __str__(self): """ String representation of this instance. Examples -------- >>> from astroquery.jplhorizons import Horizons >>> eros = Horizons(id='433', location='568', ... epochs={'start':'2017-01-01', ... 'stop':'2017-02-01', ... 'step':'1d'}) >>> print(eros) JPLHorizons instance "433"; location=568, epochs={'start': '2017-01-01', 'stop': '2017-02-01', 'step': '1d'}, id_type=None """ return ('JPLHorizons instance \"{:s}\"; location={:s}, ' 'epochs={:s}, id_type={:s}').format( str(self.id), str(self.location), str(self.epochs), str(self.id_type)) # ---------------------------------- query functions
[docs] @deprecated_renamed_argument("get_raw_response", None, since="0.4.7", alternative="async methods") def ephemerides_async(self, airmass_lessthan=99, solar_elongation=(0, 180), max_hour_angle=0, rate_cutoff=None, skip_daylight=False, refraction=False, refsystem='ICRF', closest_apparition=False, no_fragments=False, quantities=conf.eph_quantities, get_query_payload=False, get_raw_response=False, cache=True, extra_precision=False): """ Query JPL Horizons for ephemerides. .. deprecated:: 0.4.7 The ``get_raw_response`` keyword argument is deprecated. The `~HorizonsClass.ephemerides_async` method will return a raw response. The ``location`` parameter in ``HorizonsClass`` refers in this case to the location of the observer. The following tables list the values queried, their definitions, data types, units, and original Horizons designations (where available). For more information on the definitions of these quantities, please refer to the `Horizons User Manual <https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?horizons_doc>`_. +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | Column Name | Definition | +==================+===============================================+ | targetname | official number, name, designation (string) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | H | absolute magnitude in V band (float, mag) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | G | photometric slope parameter (float) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | M1 | comet total abs mag (float, mag, ``M1``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | M2 | comet nuclear abs mag (float, mag, ``M2``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | k1 | total mag scaling factor (float, ``k1``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | k2 | nuclear mag scaling factor (float, ``k2``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | phasecoeff | comet phase coeff (float, mag/deg, ``PHCOFF``)| +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | datetime | epoch (str, ``Date__(UT)__HR:MN:SC.fff``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | datetime_jd | epoch Julian Date (float, | | | ``Date_________JDUT``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | solar_presence | information on Sun's presence (str) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | flags | information on Moon, target status (str) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | RA | target RA (float, deg, ``DEC_(XXX)``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | DEC | target DEC (float, deg, ``DEC_(XXX)``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | RA_app | target apparent RA (float, deg, | | | ``R.A._(a-app)``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | DEC_app | target apparent DEC (float, deg, | | | ``DEC_(a-app)``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | RA_rate | target rate RA (float, arcsec/hr, ``RA*cosD``)| +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | DEC_rate | target RA (float, arcsec/hr, ``d(DEC)/dt``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | AZ | Azimuth (float, deg, EoN, ``Azi_(a-app)``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | EL | Elevation (float, deg, ``Elev_(a-app)``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | AZ_rate | Azimuth rate (float, arcsec/minute, | | | ``dAZ*cosE``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | EL_rate | Elevation rate (float, arcsec/minute, | | | ``d(ELV)/dt``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | sat_X | satellite X position (arcsec, | | | ``X_(sat-prim)``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | sat_Y | satellite Y position (arcsec, | | | ``Y_(sat-prim)``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | sat_PANG | satellite position angle (deg, | | | ``SatPANG``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | siderealtime | local apparent sidereal time (str, | | | ``L_Ap_Sid_Time``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | airmass | target optical airmass (float, ``a-mass``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | magextinct | V-mag extinction (float, mag, ``mag_ex``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | V | V magnitude (float, mag, ``APmag``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | Tmag | comet Total magnitude (float, mag, ``T-mag``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | Nmag | comet Nucleaus magnitude (float, mag, | | | ``N-mag``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | surfbright | surf brightness (float, mag/arcsec^2, | | | ``S-brt``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | illumination | frac of illumination (float, percent, | | | ``Illu%``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | illum_defect | Defect of illumination (float, arcsec, | | | ``Dec_illu``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | sat_sep | Target-primary angular separation (float, | | | arcsec, ``ang-sep``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | sat_vis | Target-primary visibility (str, ``v``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | ang_width | Angular width of target (float, arcsec, | | | ``Ang-diam``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | PDObsLon | Apparent planetodetic longitude (float, deg, | | | ``ObsSub-LON``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | PDObsLat | Apparent planetodetic latitude (float, deg, | | | ``ObsSub-LAT``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | PDSunLon | Subsolar planetodetic longitude (float, deg, | | | ``SunSub-LON``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | PDSunLat | Subsolar planetodetic latitude (float, deg, | | | ``SunSub-LAT``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | SubSol_ang | Target sub-solar point position angle | | | (float, deg, ``SN.ang``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | SubSol_dist | Target sub-solar point position angle distance| | | (float, arcsec, ``SN.dist``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | NPole_ang | Target's North Pole position angle | | | (float, deg, ``NP.ang``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | NPole_dist | Target's North Pole position angle distance | | | (float, arcsec, ``NP.dist``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | EclLon | heliocentr ecl long (float, deg, ``hEcl-Lon``)| +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | EclLat | heliocentr ecl lat (float, deg, ``hEcl-Lat``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | ObsEclLon | obscentr ecl long (float, deg, ``ObsEcLon``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | ObsEclLat | obscentr ecl lat (float, deg, ``ObsEcLat``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | r | heliocentric distance (float, au, ``r``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | r_rate | heliocentric radial rate (float, km/s, | | | ``rdot``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | delta | distance from observer (float, au, ``delta``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | delta_rate | obs-centric rad rate (float, km/s, ``deldot``)| +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | lighttime | one-way light time (float, min, ``1-way_LT``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | vel_sun | Target center velocity wrt Sun | | | (float, km/s, ``VmagSn``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | vel_obs | Target center velocity wrt Observer | | | (float, km/s, ``VmagOb``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | elong | solar elongation (float, deg, ``S-O-T``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | elongFlag | app. position relative to Sun (str, ``/r``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | alpha | solar phase angle (float, deg, ``S-T-O``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | lunar_elong | Apparent lunar elongation angle wrt target | | | (float, deg, ``T-O-M``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | lunar_illum | Lunar illumination percentage | | | (float, percent, ``MN_Illu%``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | IB_elong | Apparent interfering body elongation angle | | | wrt target (float, deg, ``T-O-I``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | IB_illum | Interfering body illumination percentage | | | (float, percent, ``IB_Illu%``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | sat_alpha | Observer-Primary-Target angle | | | (float, deg, ``O-P-T``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | OrbPlaneAng | orbital plane angle (float, deg, ``PlAng``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | sunTargetPA | -Sun vector PA (float, deg, EoN, ``PsAng``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | velocityPA | -velocity vector PA (float, deg, EoN, | | | ``PsAMV``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | constellation | constellation ID containing target (str, | | | ``Cnst``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | TDB-UT | difference between TDB and UT (float, | | | seconds, ``TDB-UT``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | NPole_RA | Target's North Pole RA (float, deg, | | | ``N.Pole-RA``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | NPole_DEC | Target's North Pole DEC (float, deg, | | | ``N.Pole-DC``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | GlxLon | galactic longitude (float, deg, ``GlxLon``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | GlxLat | galactic latitude (float, deg, ``GlxLat``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | solartime | local apparent solar time (string, | | | ``L_Ap_SOL_Time``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | earth_lighttime | observer lighttime from center of Earth | | | (float, minutes, ``399_ins_LT`` | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | RA_3sigma | 3 sigma positional uncertainty in RA (float, | | | arcsec, ``RA_3sigma``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | DEC_3sigma | 3 sigma positional uncertainty in DEC (float,| | | arcsec, ``DEC_3sigma``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | SMAA_3sigma | 3sig pos unc error ellipse semi-major axis | | | (float, arcsec, ``SMAA_3sig``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | SMIA_3sigma | 3sig pos unc error ellipse semi-minor axis | | | (float, arcsec, ``SMIA_3sig``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | Theta_3sigma | pos unc error ellipse position angle | | | (float, deg, ``Theta``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | Area_3sigma | 3sig pos unc error ellipse are | | | (float, arcsec^2, ``Area_3sig``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | RSS_3sigma | 3sig pos unc error ellipse root-sum-square | | | (float, arcsec, ``POS_3sigma``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | r_3sigma | 3sig range uncertainty | | | (float, km, ``RNG_3sigma``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | r_rate_3sigma | 3sig range rate uncertainty | | | (float, km/second, ``RNGRT_3sigma``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | SBand_3sigma | 3sig Doppler radar uncertainties at S-band | | | (float, Hertz, ``DOP_S_3sig``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | XBand_3sigma | 3sig Doppler radar uncertainties at X-band | | | (float, Hertz, ``DOP_X_3sig``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | DoppDelay_3sigma | 3sig Doppler radar round-trip delay | | | unc (float, second, ``RT_delay_3sig``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | true_anom | True Anomaly (float, deg, ``Tru_Anom``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | hour_angle | local apparent hour angle (string, | | | sexagesimal angular hours, ``L_Ap_Hour_Ang``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | alpha_true | true phase angle (float, deg, ``phi``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | PABLon | phase angle bisector longitude | | | (float, deg, ``PAB-LON``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | PABLat | phase angle bisector latitude | | | (float, deg, ``PAB-LAT``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ Parameters ---------- airmass_lessthan : float, optional Defines a maximum airmass for the query, default: 99 solar_elongation : tuple, optional Permissible solar elongation range: (minimum, maximum); default: (0,180) max_hour_angle : float, optional Defines a maximum hour angle for the query, default: 0 rate_cutoff : float, optional Angular range rate upper limit cutoff in arcsec/h; default: disabled skip_daylight : boolean, optional Crop daylight epochs in query, default: False refraction : boolean If ``True``, coordinates account for a standard atmosphere refraction model; if ``False``, coordinates do not account for refraction (airless model); default: ``False`` refsystem : string Coordinate reference system: ``'ICRF'`` or ``'B1950'``; default: ``'ICRF'`` closest_apparition : boolean, optional Only applies to comets. This option will choose the closest apparition available in time to the selected epoch; default: False. Do not use this option for non-cometary objects. no_fragments : boolean, optional Only applies to comets. Reject all comet fragments from selection; default: False. Do not use this option for non-cometary objects. quantities : integer or string, optional Single integer or comma-separated list in the form of a string corresponding to all the quantities to be queried from JPL Horizons using the coding according to the `JPL Horizons User Manual Definition of Observer Table Quantities <https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?horizons_doc#table_quantities>`_; default: all quantities get_query_payload : boolean, optional When set to `True` the method returns the HTTP request parameters as a dict, default: False get_raw_response : boolean, optional Return raw data as obtained by JPL Horizons without parsing the data into a table, default: False extra_precision : boolean, optional Enables extra precision in RA and DEC values; default: False Returns ------- response : `requests.Response` The response of the HTTP request. Examples -------- >>> from astroquery.jplhorizons import Horizons >>> obj = Horizons(id='Ceres', location='568', ... epochs={'start':'2010-01-01', ... 'stop':'2010-03-01', ... 'step':'10d'}) >>> eph = obj.ephemerides() # doctest: +REMOTE_DATA >>> print(eph) # doctest: +SKIP targetname datetime_str datetime_jd ... PABLon PABLat --- --- d ... deg deg ----------------- ----------------- ----------- ... -------- ------ 1 Ceres (A801 AA) 2010-Jan-01 00:00 2455197.5 ... 238.2494 4.5532 1 Ceres (A801 AA) 2010-Jan-11 00:00 2455207.5 ... 241.3339 4.2832 1 Ceres (A801 AA) 2010-Jan-21 00:00 2455217.5 ... 244.3394 4.0089 1 Ceres (A801 AA) 2010-Jan-31 00:00 2455227.5 ... 247.2518 3.7289 1 Ceres (A801 AA) 2010-Feb-10 00:00 2455237.5 ... 250.0576 3.4415 1 Ceres (A801 AA) 2010-Feb-20 00:00 2455247.5 ... 252.7383 3.1451 """ URL = conf.horizons_server # check for required information if self.id is None: raise ValueError("'id' parameter not set. Query aborted.") if self.location is None: self.location = '500@399' if self.epochs is None: self.epochs = Time.now().jd # assemble commandline based on self.id_type commandline = str(self.id) if self.id_type in ['designation', 'name', 'asteroid_name', 'comet_name']: commandline = ({'designation': 'DES=', 'name': 'NAME=', 'asteroid_name': 'ASTNAM=', 'comet_name': 'COMNAM='}[self.id_type] + commandline) if self.id_type in ['smallbody', 'asteroid_name', 'comet_name', 'designation']: commandline += ';' if isinstance(closest_apparition, bool): if closest_apparition: commandline += ' CAP;' else: commandline += ' CAP{:s};'.format(closest_apparition) if no_fragments: commandline += ' NOFRAG;' request_payload = OrderedDict([ ('format', 'text'), ('EPHEM_TYPE', 'OBSERVER'), ('QUANTITIES', "'"+str(quantities)+"'"), ('COMMAND', '"' + commandline + '"'), ('SOLAR_ELONG', ('"' + str(solar_elongation[0]) + "," + str(solar_elongation[1]) + '"')), ('LHA_CUTOFF', (str(max_hour_angle))), ('CSV_FORMAT', ('YES')), ('CAL_FORMAT', ('BOTH')), ('ANG_FORMAT', ('DEG')), ('APPARENT', ({False: 'AIRLESS', True: 'REFRACTED'}[refraction])), ('REF_SYSTEM', refsystem), ('EXTRA_PREC', {True: 'YES', False: 'NO'}[extra_precision])]) if isinstance(self.location, dict): if ('lon' not in self.location or 'lat' not in self.location or 'elevation' not in self.location): raise ValueError(("'location' must contain lon, lat, " "elevation")) if 'body' not in self.location: self.location['body'] = '399' request_payload['CENTER'] = 'coord@{:s}'.format( str(self.location['body'])) request_payload['COORD_TYPE'] = 'GEODETIC' request_payload['SITE_COORD'] = "'{:f},{:f},{:f}'".format( self.location['lon'], self.location['lat'], self.location['elevation']) else: request_payload['CENTER'] = "'" + str(self.location) + "'" if rate_cutoff is not None: request_payload['ANG_RATE_CUTOFF'] = (str(rate_cutoff)) # parse self.epochs if isinstance(self.epochs, (list, tuple, ndarray)): request_payload['TLIST'] = "\n".join([str(epoch) for epoch in self.epochs]) elif isinstance(self.epochs, dict): if ('start' not in self.epochs or 'stop' not in self.epochs or 'step' not in self.epochs): raise ValueError("'epochs' must contain start, " + "stop, step") request_payload['START_TIME'] = ( '"'+self.epochs['start'].replace("'", '')+'"') request_payload['STOP_TIME'] = ( '"'+self.epochs['stop'].replace("'", '')+'"') request_payload['STEP_SIZE'] = ( '"'+self.epochs['step'].replace("'", '')+'"') else: # treat epochs as scalar request_payload['TLIST'] = str(self.epochs) if airmass_lessthan < 99: request_payload['AIRMASS'] = str(airmass_lessthan) if skip_daylight: request_payload['SKIP_DAYLT'] = 'YES' else: request_payload['SKIP_DAYLT'] = 'NO' self.query_type = 'ephemerides' # return request_payload if desired if get_query_payload: return request_payload # set return_raw flag, if raw response desired if get_raw_response: self.return_raw = True # query and parse response = self._request('GET', URL, params=request_payload, timeout=self.TIMEOUT, cache=cache) self.uri = response.url # check length of uri if len(self.uri) >= 2000: warnings.warn(('The uri used in this query is very long ' 'and might have been truncated. The results of ' 'the query might be compromised. If you queried ' 'a list of epochs, consider querying a range.')) return response
[docs] @deprecated_renamed_argument("get_raw_response", None, since="0.4.7", alternative="async methods") def elements_async(self, get_query_payload=False, refsystem='ICRF', refplane='ecliptic', tp_type='absolute', closest_apparition=False, no_fragments=False, get_raw_response=False, cache=True): """ Query JPL Horizons for osculating orbital elements. .. deprecated:: 0.4.7 The ``get_raw_response`` keyword argument is deprecated. The `~HorizonsClass.elements_async` method will return a raw response. The ``location`` parameter in ``HorizonsClass`` refers in this case to the center body relative to which the elements are provided. The following table lists the values queried, their definitions, data types, units, and original Horizons designations (where available). For more information on the definitions of these quantities, please refer to the `Horizons User Manual <https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?horizons_doc>`_. +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | Column Name | Definition | +==================+===============================================+ | targetname | official number, name, designation (string) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | H | absolute magnitude in V band (float, mag) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | G | photometric slope parameter (float) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | M1 | comet total abs mag (float, mag, ``M1``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | M2 | comet nuclear abs mag (float, mag, ``M2``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | k1 | total mag scaling factor (float, ``k1``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | k2 | nuclear mag scaling factor (float, ``k2``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | phasecoeff | comet phase coeff (float, mag/deg, ``PHCOFF``)| +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | datetime_str | epoch Date (str, ``Calendar Date (TDB)``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | datetime_jd | epoch Julian Date (float, ``JDTDB``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | e | eccentricity (float, ``EC``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | q | periapsis distance (float, au, ``QR``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | a | semi-major axis (float, au, ``A``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | incl | inclination (float, deg, ``IN``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | Omega | longitude of Asc. Node (float, deg, ``OM``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | w | argument of the perifocus (float, deg, ``W``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | Tp_jd | time of periapsis (float, Julian Date, ``Tp``)| +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | n | mean motion (float, deg/d, ``N``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | M | mean anomaly (float, deg, ``MA``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | nu | true anomaly (float, deg, ``TA``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | period | orbital period (float, (Earth) d, ``PR``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | Q | apoapsis distance (float, au, ``AD``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ Parameters ---------- refsystem : string Element reference system for geometric and astrometric quantities: ``'ICRF'`` or ``'B1950'``; default: ``'ICRF'`` refplane : string Reference plane for all output quantities: ``'ecliptic'`` (ecliptic and mean equinox of reference epoch), ``'earth'`` (Earth mean equator and equinox of reference epoch), or ``'body'`` (body mean equator and node of date); default: ``'ecliptic'`` tp_type : string Representation for time-of-perihelion passage: ``'absolute'`` or ``'relative'`` (to epoch); default: ``'absolute'`` closest_apparition : boolean, optional Only applies to comets. This option will choose the closest apparition available in time to the selected epoch; default: False. Do not use this option for non-cometary objects. no_fragments : boolean, optional Only applies to comets. Reject all comet fragments from selection; default: False. Do not use this option for non-cometary objects. get_query_payload : boolean, optional When set to ``True`` the method returns the HTTP request parameters as a dict, default: False get_raw_response: boolean, optional Return raw data as obtained by JPL Horizons without parsing the data into a table, default: False Returns ------- response : `requests.Response` The response of the HTTP request. Examples -------- >>> from astroquery.jplhorizons import Horizons >>> obj = Horizons(id='433', location='500@10', ... epochs=2458133.33546) >>> el = obj.elements() # doctest: +REMOTE_DATA >>> print(el) # doctest: +SKIP targetname datetime_jd ... Q P --- d ... AU d ------------------ ------------- ... ------------- ------------ 433 Eros (1898 DQ) 2458133.33546 ... 1.78244263804 642.93873484 """ URL = conf.horizons_server # check for required information if self.id is None: raise ValueError("'id' parameter not set. Query aborted.") if self.location is None: self.location = '500@10' if self.epochs is None: self.epochs = Time.now().jd # assemble commandline based on self.id_type commandline = str(self.id) if self.id_type in ['designation', 'name', 'asteroid_name', 'comet_name']: commandline = ({'designation': 'DES=', 'name': 'NAME=', 'asteroid_name': 'ASTNAM=', 'comet_name': 'COMNAM='}[self.id_type] + commandline) if self.id_type in ['smallbody', 'asteroid_name', 'comet_name', 'designation']: commandline += ';' if isinstance(closest_apparition, bool): if closest_apparition: commandline += ' CAP;' else: commandline += ' CAP{:s};'.format(closest_apparition) if no_fragments: commandline += ' NOFRAG;' if isinstance(self.location, dict): raise ValueError(('cannot use topographic position in orbital' 'elements query')) # configure request_payload for ephemerides query request_payload = OrderedDict([ ('format', 'text'), ('EPHEM_TYPE', 'ELEMENTS'), ('MAKE_EPHEM', 'YES'), ('OUT_UNITS', 'AU-D'), ('COMMAND', '"' + commandline + '"'), ('CENTER', ("'" + str(self.location) + "'")), ('CSV_FORMAT', 'YES'), ('ELEM_LABELS', 'YES'), ('OBJ_DATA', 'YES'), ('REF_SYSTEM', refsystem), ('REF_PLANE', {'ecliptic': 'ECLIPTIC', 'earth': 'FRAME', 'body': "'BODY EQUATOR'"}[refplane]), ('TP_TYPE', {'absolute': 'ABSOLUTE', 'relative': 'RELATIVE'}[tp_type])]) # parse self.epochs if isinstance(self.epochs, (list, tuple, ndarray)): request_payload['TLIST'] = "\n".join([str(epoch) for epoch in self.epochs]) elif isinstance(self.epochs, dict): if ('start' not in self.epochs or 'stop' not in self.epochs or 'step' not in self.epochs): raise ValueError("'epochs' must contain start, " "stop, step") request_payload['START_TIME'] = ( '"'+self.epochs['start'].replace("'", '')+'"') request_payload['STOP_TIME'] = ( '"'+self.epochs['stop'].replace("'", '')+'"') request_payload['STEP_SIZE'] = ( '"'+self.epochs['step'].replace("'", '')+'"') else: request_payload['TLIST'] = str(self.epochs) self.query_type = 'elements' # return request_payload if desired if get_query_payload: return request_payload # set return_raw flag, if raw response desired if get_raw_response: self.return_raw = True # query and parse response = self._request('GET', URL, params=request_payload, timeout=self.TIMEOUT, cache=cache) self.uri = response.url # check length of uri if len(self.uri) >= 2000: warnings.warn(('The uri used in this query is very long ' 'and might have been truncated. The results of ' 'the query might be compromised. If you queried ' 'a list of epochs, consider querying a range.')) return response
[docs] @deprecated_renamed_argument("get_raw_response", None, since="0.4.7", alternative="async methods") def vectors_async(self, get_query_payload=False, closest_apparition=False, no_fragments=False, get_raw_response=False, cache=True, refplane='ecliptic', aberrations='geometric', delta_T=False,): """ Query JPL Horizons for state vectors. .. deprecated:: 0.4.7 The ``get_raw_response`` keyword argument is deprecated. The `~HorizonsClass.vectors_async` method will return a raw response. The ``location`` parameter in ``HorizonsClass`` refers in this case to the center body relative to which the vectors are provided. The following table lists the values queried, their definitions, data types, units, and original Horizons designations (where available). For more information on the definitions of these quantities, please refer to the `Horizons User Manual <https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?horizons_doc>`_. +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | Column Name | Definition | +==================+===============================================+ | targetname | official number, name, designation (string) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | H | absolute magnitude in V band (float, mag) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | G | photometric slope parameter (float) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | M1 | comet total abs mag (float, mag, ``M1``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | M2 | comet nuclear abs mag (float, mag, ``M2``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | k1 | total mag scaling factor (float, ``k1``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | k2 | nuclear mag scaling factor (float, ``k2``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | phasecoeff | comet phase coeff (float, mag/deg, ``PHCOFF``)| +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | datetime_str | epoch Date (str, ``Calendar Date (TDB)``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | datetime_jd | epoch Julian Date (float, ``JDTDB``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | delta_T | time-varying difference between TDB and UT | | | (float, ``delta-T``, optional) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | x | x-component of position vector | | | (float, au, ``X``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | y | y-component of position vector | | | (float, au, ``Y``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | z | z-component of position vector | | | (float, au, ``Z``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | vx | x-component of velocity vector (float, au/d, | | | ``VX``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | vy | y-component of velocity vector (float, au/d, | | | ``VY``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | vz | z-component of velocity vector (float, au/d, | | | ``VZ``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | lighttime | one-way lighttime (float, d, ``LT``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | range | range from coordinate center (float, au, | | | ``RG``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | range_rate | range rate (float, au/d, ``RR``) | +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ Parameters ---------- closest_apparition : boolean, optional Only applies to comets. This option will choose the closest apparition available in time to the selected epoch; default: False. Do not use this option for non-cometary objects. no_fragments : boolean, optional Only applies to comets. Reject all comet fragments from selection; default: False. Do not use this option for non-cometary objects. get_query_payload : boolean, optional When set to `True` the method returns the HTTP request parameters as a dict, default: False get_raw_response: boolean, optional Return raw data as obtained by JPL Horizons without parsing the data into a table, default: False refplane : string Reference plane for all output quantities: ``'ecliptic'`` (ecliptic and mean equinox of reference epoch), ``'earth'`` (Earth mean equator and equinox of reference epoch), or ``'body'`` (body mean equator and node of date); default: ``'ecliptic'``. See :ref:`Horizons Reference Frames <jpl-horizons-reference-frames>` in the astroquery documentation for details. aberrations : string, optional Aberrations to be accounted for: [``'geometric'``, ``'astrometric'``, ``'apparent'``]. Default: ``'geometric'`` delta_T : boolean, optional Triggers output of time-varying difference between TDB and UT time-scales. Default: False Returns ------- response : `requests.Response` The response of the HTTP request. Examples -------- >>> from astroquery.jplhorizons import Horizons >>> obj = Horizons(id='2012 TC4', location='257', ... epochs={'start': '2017-10-01', ... 'stop': '2017-10-02', ... 'step': '10m'}) >>> vec = obj.vectors() # doctest: +REMOTE_DATA >>> print(vec) # doctest: +SKIP targetname datetime_jd ... range range_rate --- d ... AU AU / d ---------- ------------- ... --------------- ----------------- (2012 TC4) 2458027.5 ... 0.0429332099306 -0.00408018711862 (2012 TC4) 2458027.50694 ... 0.0429048742906 -0.00408040726527 (2012 TC4) 2458027.51389 ... 0.0428765385796 -0.00408020747595 (2012 TC4) 2458027.52083 ... 0.0428482057142 -0.0040795878561 (2012 TC4) 2458027.52778 ... 0.042819878607 -0.00407854931543 (2012 TC4) 2458027.53472 ... 0.0427915601617 -0.0040770935665 ... ... ... ... ... (2012 TC4) 2458028.45833 ... 0.0392489462501 -0.00405496595173 (2012 TC4) 2458028.46528 ... 0.03922077771 -0.00405750632914 (2012 TC4) 2458028.47222 ... 0.039192592935 -0.00405964084539 (2012 TC4) 2458028.47917 ... 0.039164394759 -0.00406136516755 (2012 TC4) 2458028.48611 ... 0.0391361860433 -0.00406267574646 (2012 TC4) 2458028.49306 ... 0.0391079696711 -0.0040635698239 (2012 TC4) 2458028.5 ... 0.0390797485422 -0.00406404543822 Length = 145 rows """ URL = conf.horizons_server # check for required information if self.id is None: raise ValueError("'id' parameter not set. Query aborted.") if self.location is None: self.location = '500@10' if self.epochs is None: self.epochs = Time.now().jd # assemble commandline based on self.id_type commandline = str(self.id) if self.id_type in ['designation', 'name', 'asteroid_name', 'comet_name']: commandline = ({'designation': 'DES=', 'name': 'NAME=', 'asteroid_name': 'ASTNAM=', 'comet_name': 'COMNAM='}[self.id_type] + commandline) if self.id_type in ['smallbody', 'asteroid_name', 'comet_name', 'designation']: commandline += ';' if isinstance(closest_apparition, bool): if closest_apparition: commandline += ' CAP;' else: commandline += ' CAP{:s};'.format(closest_apparition) if no_fragments: commandline += ' NOFRAG;' if isinstance(self.location, dict): raise ValueError(('cannot use topographic position in state' 'vectors query')) # configure request_payload for ephemerides query request_payload = OrderedDict([ ('format', 'text'), ('EPHEM_TYPE', 'VECTORS'), ('OUT_UNITS', 'AU-D'), ('COMMAND', '"' + commandline + '"'), ('CENTER', ("'" + str(self.location) + "'")), ('CSV_FORMAT', ('"YES"')), ('REF_PLANE', {'ecliptic': 'ECLIPTIC', 'earth': 'FRAME', 'frame': 'FRAME', 'body': "'BODY EQUATOR'"}[refplane]), ('REF_SYSTEM', 'ICRF'), ('TP_TYPE', 'ABSOLUTE'), ('VEC_LABELS', 'YES'), ('VEC_CORR', {'geometric': '"NONE"', 'astrometric': '"LT"', 'apparent': '"LT+S"'}[aberrations]), ('VEC_DELTA_T', {True: 'YES', False: 'NO'}[delta_T]), ('OBJ_DATA', 'YES')] ) # parse self.epochs if isinstance(self.epochs, (list, tuple, ndarray)): request_payload['TLIST'] = "\n".join([str(epoch) for epoch in self.epochs]) elif isinstance(self.epochs, dict): if ('start' not in self.epochs or 'stop' not in self.epochs or 'step' not in self.epochs): raise ValueError("'epochs' must contain start, " + "stop, step") request_payload['START_TIME'] = ( '"'+self.epochs['start'].replace("'", '')+'"') request_payload['STOP_TIME'] = ( '"'+self.epochs['stop'].replace("'", '')+'"') request_payload['STEP_SIZE'] = ( '"'+self.epochs['step'].replace("'", '')+'"') else: # treat epochs as a list request_payload['TLIST'] = str(self.epochs) self.query_type = 'vectors' # return request_payload if desired if get_query_payload: return request_payload # set return_raw flag, if raw response desired if get_raw_response: self.return_raw = True # query and parse response = self._request('GET', URL, params=request_payload, timeout=self.TIMEOUT, cache=cache) self.uri = response.url # check length of uri if len(self.uri) >= 2000: warnings.warn(('The uri used in this query is very long ' 'and might have been truncated. The results of ' 'the query might be compromised. If you queried ' 'a list of epochs, consider querying a range.')) return response
# ---------------------------------- parser functions def _parse_result(self, response, verbose=None): """ Parse query result to a `~astropy.table.Table` object. Parameters ---------- response : `~requests.Response` Response from server. Returns ------- data : `~astropy.table.Table` """ self.last_response = response try: response.raise_for_status() except HTTPError: # don't cache any HTTP errored queries (especially when the API is down!) try: self._last_query.remove_cache_file(self.cache_location) except OSError: # this is allowed: if `cache` was set to False, this # won't be needed pass raise self._raw_response = response.text # return raw response, if desired if self.return_raw: # reset return_raw flag self.return_raw = False return self._raw_response # split response by line break src = response.text.split('\n') data_start_idx = 0 data_end_idx = 0 H, G = nan, nan M1, M2, k1, k2, phcof = nan, nan, nan, nan, nan headerline = [] for idx, line in enumerate(src): # read in ephemerides header line; replace some field names if (self.query_type == 'ephemerides' and "Date__(UT)__HR:MN" in line): headerline = str(line).split(',') headerline[2] = 'solar_presence' headerline[3] = 'flags' headerline[-1] = '_dump' # read in elements header line elif (self.query_type == 'elements' and "JDTDB," in line): headerline = str(line).split(',') headerline[-1] = '_dump' # read in vectors header line elif (self.query_type == 'vectors' and "JDTDB," in line): headerline = str(line).split(',') headerline[-1] = '_dump' # identify end of data block if "$$EOE" in line: data_end_idx = idx # identify start of data block if "$$SOE" in line: data_start_idx = idx + 1 # read in targetname if "Target body name" in line: targetname = line[18:50].strip() # read in H and G (if available) if "rotational period in hours)" in line: HGline = src[idx + 2].split('=') if 'B-V' in HGline[2] and 'G' in HGline[1]: try: H = float(HGline[1].rstrip('G')) G = float(HGline[2].rstrip('B-V')) except ValueError: H = nan G = nan # read in M1, M2, k1, k2, and phcof (if available) if "Comet physical" in line: HGline = src[idx + 2].split('=') try: M1 = float(HGline[1].rstrip('M2')) k1 = float(HGline[3].rstrip('k2')) except ValueError: M1 = nan k1 = nan try: M2 = float(HGline[2].rstrip('k1')) k2 = float(HGline[4].rstrip('PHCOF')) except ValueError: M2 = nan k2 = nan try: phcof = float(HGline[5]) except ValueError: phcof = nan # catch unambiguous names if (("Multiple major-bodies match string" in line or "Matching small-bodies:" in line) and ("No matches found" not in src[idx + 1])): for i in range(idx + 2, len(src), 1): if (('To SELECT, enter record' in src[i]) or ('make unique selection.' in src[i])): end_idx = i break raise ValueError(('Ambiguous target name; provide ' 'unique id:\n%s' % '\n'.join(src[idx + 2:end_idx]))) # catch unknown target if ("Matching small-bodies" in line and "No matches found" in src[idx + 1]): raise ValueError(('Unknown target ({:s}). Maybe try ' 'different id_type?').format(self.id)) # catch any unavailability of ephemeris data if "No ephemeris for target" in line: errormsg = line[line.find('No ephemeris for target'):] errormsg = errormsg[:errormsg.find('\n')] raise ValueError('Horizons Error: {:s}'.format(errormsg)) # catch elements errors if "Cannot output elements" in line: errormsg = line[line.find('Cannot output elements'):] errormsg = errormsg[:errormsg.find('\n')] raise ValueError('Horizons Error: {:s}'.format(errormsg)) # catch date error if "Cannot interpret date" in line: errormsg = line[line.find('Cannot interpret date'):] errormsg = errormsg[:errormsg.find('\n')] raise ValueError('Horizons Error: {:s}'.format(errormsg)) if 'INPUT ERROR' in line: headerline = [] break if headerline == []: err_msg = "".join(src[data_start_idx:data_end_idx]) if len(err_msg) > 0: raise ValueError('Query failed with error message:\n' + err_msg) else: raise ValueError(('Query failed without known error message; ' 'received the following response:\n' '{}').format(response.text)) # strip whitespaces from column labels headerline = [h.strip() for h in headerline] # remove all 'Cut-off' messages raw_data = [line for line in src[data_start_idx:data_end_idx] if 'Cut-off' not in line] # read in data data = ascii.read(raw_data, names=headerline, fill_values=[('.n.a.', '0'), ('n.a.', '0')], fast_reader=False) # force to a masked table data = Table(data, masked=True) # convert data to QTable # from astropy.table import QTable # data = QTable(data) # does currently not work, unit assignment in columns creates error # results in: # TypeError: The value must be a valid Python or Numpy numeric type. # remove last column as it is empty data.remove_column('_dump') # add targetname and physical properties as columns data.add_column(Column([targetname] * len(data), name='targetname'), index=0) if not isnan(H): data.add_column(Column([H] * len(data), name='H'), index=3) if not isnan(G): data.add_column(Column([G] * len(data), name='G'), index=4) if not isnan(M1): data.add_column(Column([M1] * len(data), name='M1'), index=3) if not isnan(M2): data.add_column(Column([M2] * len(data), name='M2'), index=4) if not isnan(k1): data.add_column(Column([k1] * len(data), name='k1'), index=5) if not isnan(k2): data.add_column(Column([k2] * len(data), name='k2'), index=6) if not isnan(phcof): data.add_column(Column([phcof] * len(data), name='phasecoeff'), index=7) # replace missing airmass values with 999 (not observable) if self.query_type == 'ephemerides' and 'a-mass' in data.colnames: data['a-mass'] = data['a-mass'].filled(999) # set column definition dictionary if self.query_type == 'ephemerides': column_defs = conf.eph_columns elif self.query_type == 'elements': column_defs = conf.elem_columns elif self.query_type == 'vectors': column_defs = conf.vec_columns else: raise TypeError('Query type unknown.') # set column units rename = [] for col in data.columns: data[col].unit = column_defs[col][1] if data[col].name != column_defs[col][0]: rename.append(data[col].name) # rename columns for col in rename: try: data.rename_column(data[col].name, column_defs[col][0]) except KeyError: pass return data
# the default tool for users to interact with is an instance of the Class Horizons = HorizonsClass()